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Version control and configuration management are terms used widely in the business industry, write short notes about the terms.
By definition, version control is essentially a subset of configuration management. It is usually concerned with the handling changes arising in previous documents as opposed to configuration management which essentially handles the individual components.
Good documentation management systems are highly recommended in system development; briefly describe the factors that contribute to a good documentation management system.
For a documentation system to be considered good, the following factors should be prevalent in it: It should be made in such a way that it can accommodate future changes, including version changes, bearing system security features such as providing access only to the allowed users, i.e. have good authentication features. In general, one should take in data as well as information security measures in place, putting in mind that the documentation should also be able to bend to the changing needs of its users as well as the market conditions.
State the different software methodologies.
The term software methodology, software development methodology and software process mean almost the same thing in computer software or system development, i.e. the activities carried out by computer system engineers or computer software engineers in an attempt to procure particular computer software that servers a certain function or purpose. This includes the framework adopted, structure, plan as well as the control of the resources engaged in the software or system development process.
There are so many software methodologies and the choice as to which one to adopt is usually dependant on so many other factors such as the purpose of the given software, the prevailing conditions regarding the software development environment and the will of the company or the client procuring or intending to use the final software as some clients even look into the software or system engineers’ methodology to as one of the factors determining whether to contract him or not.
Regarding the purpose of the software, lets look at the following, example is a situation of a safety critical system such as an aircraft navigation system and a business system, one would find that in a business system, one can have its prototype done and users start using it as they identify its weaknesses and tell the engineers to rectify whereas in an aircraft navigation system, no weakness would be allowed at all for it can cause huge loss of property and life thus all the possible identifiable weaknesses are eliminated first before that system comes into operation. Much stories and arguments apart, the following are the available software methodologies:
i) SLDC- Software Development Life Cycle, also understood as System Development Life Cycle which encompasses activities such as Analysis, Design, Implementation, Testing, Inauguration and Maintenance in that order and then back to Analysis, note that it is a cycle hence once we get to the last stage, i.e. the maintenance we still go back to the analysis stage and move along to the maintenance once more iteratively
ii) The RUP – The Rational Unified Process, which when looked into intuitively is an iterative software development process framework that was created by the Rational Software Corporation in the US which is a division of the IBM (International Business Machine). However, this process is usually not considered as a single prescriptive framework yet as an adaptable process which can be tailored by the development team or organization selectively in order to end up with their respective results depending on the needs prevailing either on the client’s side, the industry standards or even the development constraints which involve time, scope as well as the budget, Intuitively, this process has characteristics overlapping with other development processes and methodology as will be seen when considering the other methodologies below.
iii) The iterative process
iv) The waterfall model
v) The agile software development methodology
vi) The XP (Extreme programming)
vii) The ISO 9000 methodology – provided by the International Standards Organization
viii) The ISO 15504 model – also provided by the International Standards organization
ix) The Capability Maturing Model Integration (CMMI) which replaced the former Capability Maturing Model (CMM)
x) The Six Sigma methodology
xi) The Test Driven Development (TDD)
Describe the abbreviation OOAD as used in Object Oriented Programming.
The term OOAD is an abbreviation of the phrase Object Oriented Analysis and Design. Contrary to the traditional programming, also called procedural programming whereby the entire code of a given program is written line by line, from scratch. There is a new more powerful approach to software development or simply programming referred to as the Object Technology where predefined objects pertaining to particular situations are pre-designed by experienced software engineers and then the programmers just call them into their code in order to implement a given function in their code.
Just the way experienced civil engineers design building blocks for particular situations in a particular house so that the inexperienced mason just lays them appropriately in order to end up with a nice house is the way experienced software engineers make these objects. This helps even novice programmers to use the objects to build nice computer software or a program. It is the analysis and design of these objects with intention to make good software that is referred to as Object Oriented Analysis and Design, the OOAD. Programming languages that use the Object Technology include C++, JAVA, and the PHP among others.
Describe the meaning of the term data mapping.
By definition, the term data mapping is the process by which a system developer creates data element mappings that relates two models of data (databases) in order to assist in data integration. This usually assists in the following manner:
i) Data mediation or transformation between the source and the destination of data
ii) Assisting in data lineage analysis by identifying the data relationships
iii) Assists in data masking by discovering sensitive data
iv) Assists in data de-identification process
v) Assists in consolidating multiple databases into one thus identification of redundant columns and advising the developers for consideration or even elimination.
Describe the term black box testing.
Black box testing is the type of testing whereby the entire unit is tested as a whole without considering the contents or even how the inner components of the unit under test work, the tester’s only consideration is to enter a known input signal and check whether the output behavior is the one expected out of that unit given his input signal.
Give the importance of using a flowchart.
It is easier to interpret as it is graphical in nature and thus all persons involved in the project development can understand it with ease.
Briefly explain the use case model.
This is a model used by software engineers to describe the business environment of a given project. It encompasses of a series of workflow that are pertained to a particular actor.
What do you understand by the term UML?
The term UML is an abbreviation of the term Unified Modeling Language which is the standard language used in construction of as well as visualization and documentation of varied system components. It has a collection of graphical notation techniques used in the development of abstract models for certain specific systems.
Describe the importance of an activity diagram.
This is the diagram used in a business system to show the workflow involved, activities happening as well as the completed actions. In a company comprising of several departments e.g. the medical department, accounting department, and even the human resource department, usually each department has its own peculiar privileges to the system, for instance the medical department can only be allowed to access the screens related to their activities such as medical records while the human resource department will be allowed to view only the screens which are relevant to them too, thus these activity diagrams assist in showing the relationship between particular activities with their relevant and related departments so that during coding, the coders may refer to them to implement the discrepancies accordingly. Designers too can be guided by these activity diagrams.
How many types of diagrams do you know and what do you know about them?
Am aware of two types of diagrams namely the use case diagram and the collaboration diagram, the use case diagram has been discussed above and as a result I will only talk about the collaboration diagram here, these are diagrams put into being by modeling the objects of a given systems and then representing the prevalent associations between the objects in questions with the use of links.
Describe your understanding regarding the so called alternate flow in use case.
These are the contingent flows that arise when a system fails to curb an encountered situation and thus the system doesn’t result in the expected results. When the system resorts to the alternate flow under this circumstance, it may still end up yielding the expected results.
Describe your understanding regarding the exception flow in use case.
This is generally unpredicted situation that may lead to undesired result under normal circumstance in a system; several methodologies called exception handlers are available to help control such situation
Describe the meaning of the following words as used in the use case scenario:
In the use case scenario, the term extends is used to imply that a certain action needs to have taken place in order for the other to take place too whereas includes implies that it is not important, as in the action may take place or as well may fail to take place but the other will still take place.
What are the documents related to the use case?
There are two documents related, namely the FRD (Functional Requirement Document) and the SSD (System Design Document) or the TRS (Technical Requirement Specifications).
Describe your understanding regarding logical data model.
It is the data model, which is not actually physical and describes how data is physically stored in the given database.
Describe your understanding regarding high level and low level use cases.
The high level use case usually refers to the entire business process whereas when it is divided into smaller units, the outcome or the sub units are what are then referred to as the low level use case
Describe your understanding regarding the SDD.
This is the abbreviation of the term System Design Document; it acts as the mediator between business users and the system developers so as the system developers may understand the business requirements of the system they are developing in order to know where to put emphasis and end up with a quality and objective based system.
Describe your understanding regarding the following terms
The URS is the User Requirement Specification whilst the FS is the Functional Specification; traceability matrix is usually used to keep track of these requirements. TEST DIRECTOR can be used to do the traceability of the given requirements during the testing phase.
How is use case prepared?
It is prepared using drawing application software such as the Microsoft Visio and the also the Rational rose.
Describe how you would participate in testing as a BA (Business Analyst).
As a Business Analyst, I would participate by reviewing the test cases to ensure that all the stipulated requirements have been met by the system in question.
Describe the main qualities of a good requirement.
There are several qualities regarding a good requirement but the most outstanding ones include the:
Clarity – the requirement should be clear enough to be understood by its users.
Understandable – the requirements should be put in a manner easy to understand by users of all levels.
Consistent – the requirement should be such that it doesn’t contradict itself, it is important noting that during system development, all users need to be consulted, including the managers as well as the junior staff, one would find that the managers would like a wider control of the system so as to monitor the junior staff to the date whereas the junior staff are objecting these view, hence a contradiction. When this issue is not considered carefully, usually through consultation or negotiation either the managers or junior staff may resent the system thus by this, once the users resent the system, obviously it will not be exploited to the maximum thus lowering the benefits the organization derives from it thus consistency must always be considered in the system development requirements.
Verifiable – The requirements of a given system should always be verifiable as in they should be put in a manner that can be checked across in future so as one can clearly identify whether the particular requirement has been met or not, it is usually advised that the requirements are put in a manner that during verification, the answer is either true or false and nothing vague as it is during this stage that legal action can be taken by the either the contractor or client if at all the answer is no and always with the law, matters of doubt are generally not recommended.
What is the meaning of the word UML?
This usually is the abbreviation of the Unified Modeling Language, a standard language in the system development used to implement the understanding, documentation and construction of varied system components
Describe the diagrams which should be known by the Business Analyst (BA).
The Business Analyst (BA) is expected to be conversant with the following diagrams:
i) Use case Diagram: this is the diagram which gives the details concerning the given business environment, this entails the series of action usually performed by given actors such as analyzing the procurement portfolio, giving out an order to a certain supplier, acknowledging the reception of the goods, processing them as appropriate, doing the relevant marketing, handing the goods to the hands of a customer at a profit, receiving payments, either by cheque or cash, printing a receipt, and entering the transactions into relevant accounts, making payrolls, preparing final accounts including the balance sheets as well as the profits and loss accounts.
ii) Activity Diagram: this is the diagram which is usually employed in early analysis stages to describe the involved components.
iii) Sequence diagram: This is the type of diagram used to tell the way particular objects interact with other objects in a manner arranged in both time and sequences. This is usually very useful for system developers as well as the system testers as it enhances the level at which a given system can be understood.
Explain where you would use the rational rose and the requisite pro.
In a situation whereby different modules of a given requirements have been created for varied functions, then collected together and made into a single document, the requisite pro is the one which comes in handy. The other one, the rational rose, is used to create the business model as a visual representation. It is helpful in creating high level and low level use cases, activity diagrams, state diagrams, collaboration diagrams, sequence diagrams etc.